Members of the European Network of Ombudsmen
The European Network of Ombudsmen consists of over 95 offices from 36 European countries, including the national and regional ombudsmen and similar bodies, as well as the European Ombudsman and the Committee on Petitions of the European Parliament. The European Ombudsman coordinates the Network.
Public sector ombudsmen in Belgium exist at the federal and regional levels.
The National Ombudsman of Bulgaria intervenes when citizens' rights and freedoms have been violated by actions or omissions of the state and municipal authorities and their administrations as well as by the persons designated to provide public services.
The Czech Public Defender of Rights investigates complaints against administrative authorities at the state level, and, under certain circumstances, administrative authorities at the local level.
The Danish Ombudsman deals with complaints against the public administration at both state and local levels.
Public sector ombudsmen in Germany exist in four of the sixteen regions. There is a Committee on Petitions at the federal level, as well as Committees on Petitions in each of the sixteen regions.
The Chancellor of Justice of Estonia supervises the constitutionality of legislation and deals with complaints submitted by individuals about abuse of public authority at both state and local levels.
The National Ombudsman of Ireland examines complaints about the administrative actions of Government Departments, the Health Service Executive, local authorities and An Post.
The Greek Ombudsman investigates individual administrative actions or omissions or material actions taken by Greek government departments or public services that infringe upon the personal rights or violate the legal interests of individuals or legal entities.
Spain is organised territorially into municipalities, provinces, and autonomous communities. In line with this territorial organisation, in addition to the National Ombudsman of Spain, there are a number of regional and local ombudsmen. The links in the list below give information about the National Ombudsman of Spain and the Regional Ombudsmen, where they exist. Not all autonomous communities have yet established a Regional Ombudsman.
The French Defender of Rights is an independent administrative authority. The institution combines the areas of competence of the Médiateur de la République (French Ombudsman), the Défenseur des enfants (Children's Ombudsman) and the Haute Autorité de lutte contre les discriminations et pour l’égalité (HALDE, equality and anti-discrimination authority), as well as the Commission nationale de déontologie de la sécurité (CNDS, national commission on security ethics). The establishment of the Defender of Rights means that a single authority is responsible for the protection of rights.
The People's Ombudsman of Croatia deals with complaints against the governmental administration bodies, bodies vested with public powers or officials in such bodies when they deal with tasks within their respective competence.
Italy does not yet have either a national Ombudsman or a national Committee on Petitions. However, at national level, there it is an associative body for the dissemination and enhancement of the institutional role of ombudsman and for relations with European Ombudsman: the National Coordination Body of Regional and Autonomous Provinces Ombudsmen.
The Commissioner for Administration (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Cyprus investigates complaints against public services of the Republic of Cyprus whose actions may have infringed human rights, legality, or the principles of good administration. The Ombudsman can also investigate correct behaviour where the relevant action has directly affected an individual.
The Ombudsman of Latvia is responsible for protecting human rights and promoting the observance of the principles of good administration. The Ombudsman investigates complaints and conducts inquiries in these two fields.
The Seimas Ombudsmen's Office of the Republic of Lithuania investigates complaints against the public administration at both state and local levels.
The National Ombudsman of Luxembourg investigates complaints against the public administration at the national and local levels.
The Parliamentary Commissioners' Office of Hungary deals with complaints against the Hungarian national, regional and local authorities. The Office consists of the Parliamentary Commissioner for Civil Rights, the Parliamentary Commissioner for Future Generations, the Parliamentary Commissioner for National and Ethnic Minorities Rights and the Parliamentary Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information.
The National Ombudsman of Malta investigates and resolves citizens' grievances about Maltese government departments and public bodies.
The National Ombudsman of the Netherlands deals with complaints against the Dutch public authorities at the national, provincial and municipal levels.
Austria is a federal state consisting of nine autonomous regions (Länder). There is currently a National Ombudsman Board and two regional ombudsmen. The links in the list below give information about the Austrian National Ombudsman Board and the regional ombudsmen.
The Polish Ombudsman (Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection) guards human and civic freedoms and rights specified in the Constitution and other legal acts. He assists the citizens in the protection of their freedoms or rights infringed by organs of public administration.
The National Ombudsman of Portugal deals with complaints concerning actions or omissions of the public authorities.
The People's Advocate of Romania deals with complaints against the Romanian public authorities at the national and local levels.
The Human Rights Ombudsman of Slovenia deals with complaints concerning breaches of human rights and fundamental freedoms by the public administration at the national and local level, as well as other holders of public authority. He can also intervene in the case of unfair and poor state administration in relation to the individual.
The Slovak Public Defender of Rights investigates complaints against administrative authorities at both the state and local levels, and against other entities with decision-making powers in the area of public administration (such as the Social Insurance Company and the General Health Insurance Company).
The Finnish Parliamentary Ombudsman deals with complaints against public authorities, public officials and other parties performing public functions to ensure good administration and the observance of constitutional and human rights.
The Finnish Chancellor of Justice deals with complaints against public authorities and public officials, including Government Ministers, and monitors respect for basic rights and liberties and human rights.
The Parliamentary Ombudsmen of Sweden deal with complaints against Swedish public authorities and courts.
Public sector ombudsmen in the United Kingdom exist at the UK level and in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. A Public Services Ombudsman also exists in Gibraltar.
Iceland Applicant country
The Icelandic Ombudsman deals with complaints against the public administration at both state and local levels.
North Macedonia Applicant country
The National Ombudsman of the North Macedonia protects the constitutional and legal rights of citizens when violated by the organs of the state administration and other public authorities.
Montenegro Applicant country
The Human Rights and Freedoms Ombudsman of the Republic of Montenegro deals with complaints against the state authorities, local self-government authorities, public services, and other holders of public powers in Montenegro.
Turkey Applicant country
The National Ombudsman of Turkey provides an independent and efficient complaint mechanism regarding the delivery of public services and investigates, researches and makes recommendations about the conformity of all kinds of actions, acts, attitudes, and behaviours of the administration with law and fairness under the respect for human rights. Natural and legal persons, including foreign nationals, may lodge complaints with the Ombudsman Institution. The contact details of the National Ombudsman of Turkey are as follows:
Norway Non-EU Member
The Norwegian Ombudsman deals with complaints against the public administration at both state and local levels.
Albania Applicant country
The People's Advocate of Albania protects the rights, freedoms and lawful interests of any person from unlawful or improper public administration.
Serbia Applicant country
The Protector of Citizens of the Republic of Serbia is an independent and autonomous government body, responsible for the protection and promotion of rights and liberties. The Protector of Citizens focuses particularly on the protection of national minority rights, children’s rights, rights of disabled persons, rights of people deprived of liberty and gender rights.